Race correction is the adjustment or correction of most commercial spirometers either by using scaling factors or by applying population-specific norms. According to research at International Conference, based on the analysis of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) there is a high prevalence and severity of lung disease among black individuals.
Race Correction- Pulmonary Function And Health Disparities
One reason black people may experience worse care than their non-black counterparts is implicit bias in the algorithms that US doctors and hospitals use to treat patients and assign life-saving care. A study, published on June 17, 2020, looked at 13 algorithms for medical decisions.
Algorithms are the tools that some Physicians use to make decisions around healthcare. For example, a Physician may use the American Heart Association’s “Heart failure Risk Score” to determine a heart patient’s future treatment.
Many critical pulmonary diseases are a result of the removal of race correction. The removal of race correction resulted in an increased percentage of patients with a pulmonary defect that is from 59.5% to 81.7% with a significant difference of 20.8%.
This means a large number of people who may be either have not yet started treatment and who are undertreated may be missing. By observing certain pulmonary disease categories, removal of black race correction results in the diagnosis of obstruction of extra 414 patients and an increase in the percentage of obstructive pulmonary lung disease from 22.1% to 23.9% with a significant difference of 1.7%.
Removal of race correction also results in the detection of narrow or tight breathing in additional 665 patients and an increase in the percentage of restrictive lung disease from 8.8% to 13.5% with a significant difference of 4.7%. The Food and Drug Administration issued a warning in concern to the accuracy of the oximeter. This concern was raised after the latest study found that the equipment missed low blood oxygen in black patients when compared to white patients.
Based on the patient’s race the devices (spirometers) are scheduled with automatic correction for lung capacity. The adjustment was done with 15% lower lung capacity for black patients whereas 6% for white or Asian patients. But Researchers are warning that this could intensify racial disparities in Covid-19 patient outcomes.
Researchers at UC San Diego warned that these corrections may decisively cause clinicians to miss important detections or this may influence the treatment plans. The algorithm embeds race because it includes a “race correction” mechanism whereby a black patient is automatically assumed to be lower-risk than a “nonblack” patient and as a result is given three fewer points under the algorithm which “may raise the threshold for using clinical resources for black patients.”
The authors are not suggesting that race be excluded from algorithms completely. We can conclude that “Our understanding of race has advanced considerably in the past two decades. Equally important is the project of making medicine a more antiracist field. One step in this process is reconsidering race correction to ensure that our clinical practices do not perpetuate the inequities we aim to repair.”